The bulk of
subway stations are in Manhattan and Brooklyn. Nearly all subway
lines cross the two boroughs, and they also possess the majority
of transfer stations. Some lines branch out into the Bronx and Queens,
with one line (G)directly connecting Brooklyn and Queens without
going into Manhattan.
In 1994 the
subway system introduced a special fare-paying system called the
MetroCard, which allows commuters to use cards that store money
paid to a token booth clerk or to a vending machine. The MetroCard
was further enhanced in 1997 to allow passengers to make free transfers
from subway to bus and vice versa within two hours. The world-famous
token was phased out by 2003, the same year when the MTA raised
its basic fare to $2, over angry protests from passenger and advocacy
groups such as the Straphangers Campaign.